I have seen the same thing, but don't have a fix. I had a system that had ARD working fine in Catalina and after the upgrade to Big Sur I can't connect graphically. I can transfer files and use UNIX commands via ARD, but I can't make a GUI connection to the machine. I've tried various kickstart commands with no success.
Is it a security permissions thing. I know Apple are tightening up on allowing remote access to Macs without User permissions.
How have you set the access for Remote Desktop?
In Jamf find the Mac and in the Management tab is it set to enable or disable Remote Desktop?
I currently set my Catalina Remote Desktop access via script, but that is only allowed because the Mac is under MDM management. I have not yet had the pleasure of Big Sur, so I am only offering suggestions.
Or is it a requirement for a PPPC setup for screen sharing for ARD?
It could be something that changed from Catalina to Big Sur @PaulHazelden , but it's not documented anywhere that I can find.
I previously setup ARD access in Catalina by allowing a local admin user to have full Remote Management access in System Preferences/Sharing. I also have a PPPC setup, similar to jared_f's 5/11/2019 comment here: https://www.jamf.com/jamf-nation/discussions/29233/enable-remote-management-full-control-in-mojave#responseChild184447 .
Please keep us posted with what JAMF says @dtmille2 . I'm going to be talking to our Apple SE soon and I'll ask him about this issue when we talk.
I've resolved this issue today.
I've determined that in Big Sur, the following setting needs to be configured in a Restrictions configuration profile. This was not required in Catalina, but is required for Big Sur Macs:
"Allow AirPlay, View Screen by Classroom, and Screen Sharing (macOS 10.14.4 or later, enrolled via a PreStage enrollment)"