I'm in the process of setting up a new process for imaging our classrooms, but I have very little experience with Casper and Mac administration in general. I'd like to use Casper to duplicate the group policy that we have, that redirects folders like "Desktop" and "Videos" to a network share, like domain.localDFSShare(username)Desktop and domain.localDFSShare(username)Videos, etc.. One potential stumbling block is that the users don't have permission to the root share (domain.localDFSShare), but they do have permission to their directory. Is it possible to set something like this up with Casper?
Casper is more of a management tool to issue commands and distribute software. What you are asking for can be done, but a solution would need to be written. Casper is the tool to deploy that solution to your machines. The functionality is not built in. TLDR; Hire a Mac engineer
As @thoule said it's completely possible to do, however it would need someone with some decent scripting skills to implement.
As long as users can manaully mount to the required shares you will be able to script it to the do the same thing.
I have seen various people post about folder redirection before on Jamf Nation so if you search through the discussions you may find other threads that give an insight into what is required and what the pitfalls are.