mdfind with the
kMDItemCFBundleIdentifie attribute. Here's how you'd find all Microsoft apps:
mdfind "kMDItemCFBundleIdentifier == 'com.microsoft.*'"
EDIT: Oops, realized you were looking to query your JSS, not a specific machine. Leaving the original post up so I can find it again later.
computers-inventory endpoint for the Jamf Pro API will get you a list of all apps installed for each computer:
bundleId listed for each app in the results should allow you to identify the publisher.