The previous jamf guy disabled this feature, but now our CTO wants that feature enabled. Teachers and staff members would use their already existing district username and password as their apple id.
Would this be a new config profile that would have to be created? Any input would be greatly appreciated.
Generally you would want to set the teachers up with an Apple ID via Apple Business Manager. You can do this manually or you can federate it if you use a supported IDP. As far as the configuration on device, you just need to make sure you are not restricting App Store use. The Apple IDs can manage apps by default so as long as the restriction isn't in place you should be able to allow them to access it and manage apps. The restriction for App Store usage is found in the Restrictions payload.
Managed Apple ID's from ABM or ASM do not have access to acquire apps from the appstore along with various other restrictions.
We have staff create personal AppleID's using their email accounts.
If they currently have personal ID's signed into devices then most likely there is a restriction in place for that group of devices.