No, this isn't possible with Jamf Pro. You get that with products like Apple Remote Desktop, but that's because it works in a different way than Jamf Pro. With ARD, your Macs are constantly broadcasting their status over the network and the ARD app simply monitors those broadcasts in real time. With Jamf, the Macs only check in to your server for policies and other items on a scheduled basis, or if a user initiates a connection in Self Service. The Jamf server is never really reaching out to your Macs.
The best you can do is use your last check-in time data, which you can add in as a default column when running a general search for all devices. You can sort by last check-in and at least see which Macs have been online recently.
@talkingmoose You'll get no disagreement from me there. I'm not sure that something like that is even on Jamf's radar though.
Barring that, an option to build a Smart Group or search query based on Last Check-in Time that could be in minutes instead of days or a date string would be useful. Then we could make a group like
Last Check-in | less than x minutes ago | 30 and place that on the dashboard for a quick look at the # of machines that have recently checked in.