Resorting to posting my issue here because Apple has been no help when I try to explain what is going on. I can't find anything useful as nothing I come across seems to be the problem we are running into. This is in regards to updating our user machines which are a mix of both Big Sur and Monterey throughout the company. We use Nudge as a means to steer our end users to install the most recent versions of macOS. We were seeing issues with downloads failing, even after reviewing firewall rules with the system admins and Zscaler exceptions as outlined on Apple's own website. We have also tried to install the install assistant for testing, and that failed due to a "could not communicate with a helper application" failure message. All of these issues require us to direct the end users to boot into safe mode, which so far is the only way that we have seen any success with getting these things installed. We are a pretty small team and our company is rapidly growing, so I would like to get some tips or any help that can be tossed our way that might assist us in getting a little bit more consistency with the end user being able to run these updates without it having to be more of a disruption to our productivity than it has to be.
I was going to suggest this post
However, given the fact that updates are working when system is in safe mode, I have a feeling something (antivirus, EDR, firewall etc.) is messing with the update process/connection when system is in normal mode.