I was setting up two new Macs side by side. We do prestage enrollment and have a few policies that run to load software and settings, etc. Nothing fancy. At the end of the prestage enrollment, one Mac set up with the prompt to enter the username and password to set up the user account, then went to the desktop of that account. Normal.
The other Mac went from wifi to prestage enrollment and then NO user account setup and then went straight to the sign in screen - but no user account was ever created, so it just showed "Other..." and no way to sign in.
I went to recovery mode, erased the drive, reinstalled Big Sur (Intel MacBook Pro), and went through prestage enrollment again. It did the same thing - connected to wifi - went through prestage setup - then "Other..."
I grabbed another MacBook off the shelf. Also new in box, and it did the same thing.
Keep in mind that the first device worked fine and finished a few seconds before the other. So our Prestage Enrollment seems to be OK, or just happened to break at that very moment which seems unlikely.
This seems to be a known issue. See this PI:
The Account Creation step of the Setup Assistant can fail to complete when enrolling computers with Jamf Pro using a PreStage enrollment.
I personally haven't seen it, but it seems to be an intermittment issue. (One computer will work fine, another will fail repeatedly.) Open a case with Jamf to document your issue and make sure you are raising the issue.
UPDATE: This may or may not have any relation, but we were 4 over our license count for computers. I removed a few computers and as soon as I did that, I was able to build a Mac like normal. Further testing showed this was not a fix or a workaround, but other New Out Of Box Macs were able to be set up OK.
We went through the JAMF upgrade over the weekend and still had the same problem, so that was not a fix either.
I am able to work around the issue if it happens by going into JAMF and removing the computer (search by serial number and it finds it at "MacBook" since there is no local account on the machine). Once removed from JAMF, I can erase the drive, reinstall the OS and go through Prestage Enrollment like normal again.