Thanks to the awesome community I managed to find various preference domains and their keys but I would much more prefer to find the answers myself.
How do you extract the preference domain for something within the macOS and how do you extract the available keys?
Well you will need to get to Terminal to find that out. You have to run a lookup. for instance all preference domains for jamf software you can run this:
defaults domains | tr ',' '\n' | grep -i jamf
Then you find a list of preference domains. If you run a defaults read command you can find the keys and payloads that belong to that domain.
defaults read com.jamfsoftware.jss
and that should work for any software running on a mac
I've used the Developer Reference Guide before: https://developer.apple.com/documentation/devicemanagement/restrictions
That's the page for restrictions (so it specifies com.apple.applicationaccess at the bottom of the page for the domain)
You may want to look into Profile Creator or iMazing Profile Editor (in iMazing, under the View dropdown, there is a a "Show Property Names option"
There is also this GitHub that is the basis for Profile Creator and iMazing that contains the plists with the keys allowed to be set via those applications: https://github.com/ProfileCreator/ProfileManifests/tree/master/Manifests