Hi Josh, we had the same issue because we don't allow the name change in our restrictions configuration profile, so even if we change it in the JSS it won't accept the name change. Through some experimenting we found that when we removed the profile from scope, and then updated the name in the inventory record, the name did update on the iPad and in the inventory record.
We remove the iPad or smart group from the scope temporarily as an exclusion, and then remove them from the exclusion once the name has been corrected.
1) Restrictions-general shared (Configuration Profile) > Edit > Scope > Exclusions > +ADD > Find the Mobile Device or Mobile Device Group > ADD > Save > Distribute to NEWLY enrolled devices (NOT TO ALL!!)
2) Find iPad in JSS > click on Edit original > update the name in the inventory record > update inventory > name should be updated on iPad and in inventory record.
3) After device name has been corrected, go back to the configuration profile and remove the device from the exclusion. Restrictions-general shared (Configuration Profile) > Edit > Scope > Exclusions > REMOVE the Mobile Device or Mobile Device Group > Save > Distribute to NEWLY enrolled devices (NOT TO ALL)
Hope this is understandable and it helps